Toširó Mifune

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Toširó Mifune
Shubun poster Toshiro Mifune.jpg
Narodenie 1. apríl 1920
Čching-tao, Čína
Úmrtie 24. december 1997 (77 rokov)
Mitaka, Tokio, Japonsko
Povolanie herec

Toširó Mifune (jap. 三船 敏郎 – Mifune Toširó, ang. Toshiro Mifune; * 1. apríl 1920, Čching-tao, Čína – † 24. december 1997) bol japonský herec, ktorý hral v najmenej 170 filmoch.

Detstvo[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

Toširó Mifune sa narodil v Čching-tao v Číne, japonským rodičom a vyrástol v čínskom meste Ta-lien [Dalian] s rodičmi a dvoma súrodencami. V mladosti Mifune pracoval vo fotografickom ateliéri svojho otca Tokuza, komerčného fotografa a dovozcu, ktorý emigroval zo severného Japonska.

Tokuzo bol metodista a sú dôkazy, že bol aj misionárom, slúžiacim etnickým Japoncom v Ta-liene.

Napriek tomu, že mladý Toširó strávil prvých 19 rokov svojho života v Číne a vedel hovoriť len mandarínsky, ako japonský občan bol zaradený do japonského cisárskeho vojenského letectva, kde slúžil u leteckých fotografov (KO-type) za druhej svetovej vojny. Bol vrátený do Japonska v roku 1946.

Vstup do šoubiznisu[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

V roku 1947 jeden z Mifuneho priateľov, ktorý pracoval pre Fotografické odelenie Toho Productions, ho odporučil pre prácu v ňom. Bol prijatý na miesto asistenta kameramana.

V tom čase mnoho hercov v spoločnosti Toho po dlhom štrajku odišlo a založilo vlastnú spoločnosť. Štúdio organizovalo konkurz na "nové tváre". Mifuneho priatelia mu navrhli túto prácu. Bol prijatý spolu so 48 ďalšími (z celkového počtu 4 000) a poslaný na skúšku pre Kadžiro Jamamota. S výrazom zúrivca a poznačený vojnou sa javil ako arogantný a ťažko spolupracujúci človek. Našťastie sa Jamamotovi páčil a poslal ho režisérovi Senkiči Tanigučiovi. Ten dal Mifunemu prvú úlohu vo filme Šin Baka Džidai [Shin Baka Jidai].

Manželstvo[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

Jedna z Mifuneho spolupracujúcich 32 herečiek vybraných z "nových tvárí" bola Sačiko Jošimine. Bola o osem rokov mladšia a pochádzala z váženej tokijskej rodiny. Zaľúbili sa a čoskoro sa zosobášili. Jošiminini rodičia boli silne proti zväzku. Mifune bol pre nich outsiderský nebudhista navyše pochádzal z Mandžuska ktoré už nepatrilo Japonsku. Navyše sa obávali, že ako manželský pár sa neuživia. Režisér Senkiči Taniguči s pomocou Akiru Kurosawu presvedčili Jošimininých rodičov, aby súhlasili so svadbou. Stalo sa tak vo februári 1950. V novembri toho istého roku sa narodil ich prvý syn Širo. V roku 1955 sa im narodil druhý syn Takeši. Mifuneho dcéra Mika sa narodila v roku 1982.

Popularita[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

Toširó Mifune vo filme Jodžimbo hral klasickú postavu ronina (samuraja bez pána).

Jeho zaujímavý štýl, rozsah, znalosť cudzích jazykov a priateľstvo s obľúbeným režisérom Akirom Kurosawom z neho urobilo jedného z populárnych hercov jeho času. Často stvárňoval samuraja, alebo ronina, ktorý bol drsný (Kurosawa do vysvetlil raz tak že to bol jeho drsný hlas ktorý ho charakterizoval) oproti populárnemu obrazu slušného a zdvorilého samuraja. V niekoľkých filmoch ako Sedem samurajov a Jodžimbo hral postavy, ktoré často pôsobili komicky ale v skutočnosti oplývali skúsenosťami a múdrosťou a vyznačovali sa hrdinstvom. Kurosawa vysoko oceňoval Mifuneho jeho neprikrášlený obraz, raz sa vyjadril že jeho neprikrášlené podanie vyjadrí na troch stopách filmu to čo priemerný japonský herec na desiatich.

Mifune bol známy pre jeho uťahovanie si samého zo seba, ktoré často nájdeme v jeho filmových rolách. Bol známy nasadením v jeho vystúpeniach. Prípravou pre Sedem samurajov a Rashómona študoval nahrávky levo v divočine, pre film(?) Anímas Trujano počúval nahrávky mexických hercov, takže mohol hovoriť všetky časti v španielčine. V jeho prých anglických úlohách ako Grand Prix, z roku 1966 sa naučil svoje repliky foneticky. To sa stretlo s obmedzeným úspechom a jeho hlas bol často dabovaný Paulom Freesom. V čase, keď robil film Red Sun v roku 1971 sa zdokonalil natoľko, že jeho hlas je počuť týmto celým multinárodným westernom. Jeho najlepšia anglická rola bola pravdepodobne Admirál Isoroku Jamamoto vo filme Midway.

V skorých začiatkoch rozvoja Hviezdnych vojen Epizóda IV.: Nová nádej režisér George Lucas uvažoval o role Obi Wan Kenobiho pre Mifuneho. Hral obdobnú úlohu (Generál Rokurota) vo filme Skrytá pevnosť. Film ktorý Lucas obdivoval. Jeho dej a postavy majú určitú spojitosť ktorú vložil Lucas do jeho prvého filmu Hviezdnych vojen.

Mifune bol oceňovaný ako pôvodný osamelý bojovník, ktorý sa zdokonalil pri práci s Kurosawom.

Väčšina zo šestnástich spoločných filmov s Kurosawom sa stali filmovými klasikami. Ako napríklad Rashomon, Túlavý pes, Sedem samurajov, Skrytá pevnosť, Vysoký a nízky, Krvavý trón (adaptácia Shakespearového Macbetha), Jodžimbo, Sandžuro. (Pozri filmografiu dole)

Spoločná cesta Mifuneho a Kurosawu sa rozdelila po filme Červená brada. Niektoré faktory prispeli k trhline ktorá ukončila túto spoluprácu.

Koniec života[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

V roku 1984 bol Mifune zvolený v časopise za najznámejšieho Japonca. Bol spájaný s obrazom s pýchou, silou a mužnosťou. V jeho domovine a za morom je stále často videný ako stelesnenie japonskej mužnosti.

Na začiatku 80. rokov Mifune založil hereckú školu - Mifune Geidžucu Gakuin. Škola však musela pre finančné problémy skončiť po troch rokoch.

Mifune prijal úlohu Toranagu v minisérii Shogun(1980). Bohužiaľ seriál nebol doma dobre prijatý. Aj pre rozpory o účinkovaní v ňom sa skončila jeho ďalšia práca s Kurosawom.

Kurosawa sa s Mifunem zmierili až na na pohrebe ich priateľa Iširo Hondu. Napriek tomu viac spolu znovu nespolupracovali, a tak sa nemohlo ich priateľstvo znovu naplniť. Obaja zomreli v priebehu piatich rokov.

V roku 1992 začali Mifuneho vážne zdravotné problémy. Bolo to zapríčinené aj jeho prácou. Preto sa utiahol do domáceho prostredia kde ho ošetrovala jeho bývalá žena Sačiko. Keď podľahla rakovine v roku 1995 Mifuneho fyzický a psychický stav začal rapídne upadať.

Zomrel v Mitake v Japonsku na zlyhanie viacerých orgánov vo veku 77 rokov.

Filmografia[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

Kvôli rôznym prekladom z Japončiny a iným faktorom sú uvádzané viaceré názvy k mnohým filmom Mifuneho. Tieto názvy sú známe hlavne USA.

  • 1947 Snow Trail - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1947 These Foolish Times - Parts 1 & 2 - directed by Kajiro Yamamoto
  • 1948 Drunken Angel - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1949 The Quiet Duel - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1949 Jakoman and Tetsu - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1949 Stray Dog - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1950 Escape at Dawn - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1950 Conduct Report on Professor Ishinaka - Directed by Mikio Naruse
  • 1950 Scandal - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1950 Engagement Ring - directed by Keisuke Kinoshita
  • 1950 Rashomon - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1951 Beyond Love and Hate - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1951 Elegy - directed by Kajiro Yamamoto
  • 1951 The Idiot - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1951 Pirates - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1951 Meeting of the Ghost Après-Guerre - directed by Kiyoshi Saeki
  • 1951 Conclusion of Kojiro Sasaki-Duel at Ganryu Island directed by Hiroshi Inagaki - This was the first, but not the last, time that Mifune played Musashi Miyamoto
  • 1951 The Life of a Horsetrader - directed by Keigo Kimura
  • 1951 Who Knows a Woman's Heart - directed by Kajiro Yamamoto
  • 1952 Vendetta for a Samurai - directed by Kazuo Mori
  • 1952 Foghorn - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1952 The Life of Oharu - directed by Kenji Mizoguchi
  • 1952 Jewels in our Hearts - directed by Yasuke Chiba
  • 1952 Swift Current - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1952 The Man Who Came to Port - directed by Ishiro Honda
  • 1953 My Wonderful Yellow Car - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1953 The Last Embrace - directed by Masahiro Makino
  • 1953 Love in a Teacup - directed by Yasuke Chiba
  • 1953 The Eagle of the Pacific - directed by Ishiro Honda
  • 1954 Seven Samurai - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1954-56 Samurai Trilogy - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
    • 1954 Musashi Miyamoto
    • 1955 Duel at Ichijoji Temple
    • 1956 Duel at Ganryu Island
  • 1954 The Sound of Waves - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1954 The Black Fury - directed by Toshio Sugie
  • 1955 A Man Among Men - directed by Kajiro Yamamoto
  • 1955 All is Well - Part 1 & 2 - directed by Toshio Sugie
  • 1955 No Time for Tears - directed by Seiji Maruyama
  • 1955 Record of a Living Being aka I Live in Fear - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1956 Rainy Night Duel - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1956 The Underworld - directed by Kajiro Yamamoto
  • 1956 Settlement of Love - directed by Shin Saburi
  • 1956 A Wife's Heart - directed by Mikio Naruse
  • 1956 Scoundrel - directed by Nabuo Aoyagi
  • 1956 Rebels on the High Seas - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1957 Throne of Blood aka Spider Web Castle - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1957 A Man in the Storm - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1957 Be Happy These Two Lovers - directed by Ishiro Honda
  • 1957 Yagyu Secret Scrolls - part 1 - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1957 A Dangerous Hero - directed by Hideo Suzuki
  • 1957 The Lower Depths - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1957 Downtown - directed by Yasuki Chiba
  • 1958 Yagyu Secret Scrolls - part 2 - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1958 Tokyo Holiday - directed by Kajiro Yamamoto
  • 1958 Muhomatsu, The Rikshaw Man - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1958 The Happy Pilgrimage - directed by Yasuki Chiba
  • 1958 All About Marriage - uncredited cameo - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1958 Theater of Life - directed by Toshio Sugie
  • 1958 The Hidden Fortress - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1959 Boss of the Underworld - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1959 Samurai Saga - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1959 The Saga of the Vagabonds - directed by Toshio Sugie
  • 1959 Desperado Outpost - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1959 The Birth of Japan - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1960 The Last Gunfight - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1960 The Gambling Samurai - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1960 The Storm of the Pacific - directed by Shue Matsubayashi
  • 1960 Man Against Man - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1960 The Bad Sleep Well - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1960 The Masterless 47 - part 1 - directed by Toshio Sugie
  • 1961 The Story of Osaka Castle - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1961 The Masterless 47 - part 2 - directed by Toshio Sugie
  • 1961 Yojimbo aka The Bodyguard - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1961 The Youth and his Amulet - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1962 Ánimas Trujano aka The Important Man - directed by Ismael Rodríguez
  • 1962 Sanjuro - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1962 Tatsu - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1962 Chushingura - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1963 Wings over the Pacific - directed by Shue Matsubayashi
  • 1963 High and Low aka Heaven and Hell - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1963 Legacy of the 500,000 - directed by Toshiro Mifune
  • 1963 The Great Thief - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1964 Whirlwind - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1965 Samurai Assassin aka Samurai - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1965 Red Beard - directed by Akira Kurosawa
  • 1965 Sanshiro Sugata - directed by Seiichiro Uchikiro
  • 1965 Retreat from Kiska - directed by Seiji Maruyama
  • 1965 Fort Graveyard - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1966 Wild Goemon - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1966 The Sword of Doom - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1966 The Adventure of Kigan Castle - directed by Senkichi Taniguchi
  • 1966 The Mad Atlantic - directed by Jun Fukuda
  • 1966 Grand Prix - directed by John Frankenheimer - This was Mifune's first English language film -
  • 1967 Samurai Rebellion - directed by Masaki Kobayashi
  • 1967 The Longest Day of Japan - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1968 The Sands of Kurobe - directed by Kei Kumai
  • 1968 Admiral Yamamoto - directed by Eiji Tsuburaya
  • 1968 Gion Festival - directed by Daisuke Ito and Tetsuya Yamanouchi
  • 1968 Hell in the Pacific - directed by John Boorman
  • 1969 Samurai Banners - directed by Hiroshi Inagaki
  • 1969 5,000 Kilometers to Glory - directed by Koreyoshi Kurahara
  • 1969 Battle of the Japan Sea - directed by Seiji Maruyama
  • 1969 Red Lion - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1969 Band of Assassins - directed by Tadashi Sawashima
  • 1970 Zatoichi Meets Yojimbo - directed by Kihachi Okamoto
  • 1970 The Ambitious - directed by Daisuke Ito
  • 1970 Incident at Blood Pass - directed by Hiroshi Inigaki
  • 1970 The Walking Majo - directed by Koji Senno, Nobuaki Shirai and Keith Eric Burt
  • 1970 The Militarists - directed by Hiromichi Horikawa
  • 1971 Red Sun - directed by Terence Young - not released in the U.S. until 1972
  • 1975 Paper Tiger - directed by Ken Annakin
  • 1975 Midway - directed by Jack Smight
  • 1977 Proof of the Man - directed by Junya Sato
  • 1977 Japanese Godfather: Ambition - directed by Sadao Nakajima
  • 1977 Intrigue of the Yagyu Clan - directed by Kinji Fukasaku
  • 1978 Dog Flute - directed by Sadao Nakajima
  • 1978 Lady Ogin - directed by Kei Kajima
  • 1978 Japanese Godfather: Conclusion - directed by Sadao Nakajima
  • 1978 The Fall of Ako Castle - directed by Kinji Fukasaku
  • 1978 Lord Incognito - directed by Tetsuya Yamauchi
  • 1979 Winter Kills - directed by William Richart
  • 1979 The Adventures of Kosuke Kindaichi - directed by Nobuhiku Kobayashi
  • 1979 Secret Detective Investigation-Net in Big Edo - directed by Akinori Matsuo
  • 1979 1941 - directed by Steven Spielberg
  • 1981 The Bushido Blade - directed by Tsugunobu Kotani
  • 1981 Port Arthur - directed by Toshio Masuda
  • 1981 Shogun - directed by Jerry London - this was shown on television in the U.S. and as a theatrical version in the rest of the world
  • 1981 Inchon! - directed by Terence Young
  • 1982 The Challenge - directed by John Frankenheimer
  • 1983 Conquest - directed by Sadao Nakajima
  • 1983 Theater of Life - directed by Sadao Nakajima, Junya Sato and Kinji Fukasaku
  • 1983 Battle Anthem - directed by Toshio Masuda
  • 1984 The miracle of Joe the Petrel - directed by Toshiya Fujita
  • 1985 Legend of the Holy Woman - directed by Toru Murakawa
  • 1986 Song of Genkai Tsurezure - directed by Masanobu Deme
  • 1987 Shatterer - directed by Tonino Valerii
  • 1987 Tora-san Goes North - directed by Yoji Yamada
  • 1987 Princess from the Moon - directed by Kon Ichikawa
  • 1989 Demons in Spring - directed by Akira Kobayashi
  • 1989 Death of a Tea Master - directed by Kei Kumai
  • 1989 cf Girl - directed by Izo Hashimoto
  • 1991 Strawberry Road - directed by Koreyoshi Kurihara
  • 1992 Helmet - directed by Gordon Hessler
  • 1992 Shadow of the Wolf - directed by Jacques Dorfman
  • 1994 Picture Bride - directed by Kayo Hatta
  • 1995 Deep River - directed by Kei Kumai

Televízia[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

Všetky uvedené v Japonsku + Shogun uvedený v USA.

  • 1968 The Masterless Samurai - 6 one hour episodes
  • 1971 Epic Chushingura - 52 one hour episodes
  • 1972 Ronin of the Wilderness - 104 one hour episodes
  • 1973 Yojimbo of the Wilderness - 5 one hour episodes
  • 1976 The Sword, The Wind and the Lullaby - 27 one hour episodes
  • 1977 Ronin in a Lawless Town - 23 one hour episodes
  • 1978 The Spy Appears - 5 one hour episodes
  • 1978 An Eagle in Edo - 38 one hour episodes
  • 1979 Hideout in a Suite - 11 one hour episodes
  • 1980 Shogun - parts 1 & 5 159 minutes parts 2-4 93 minutes
  • 1981 Sekigahara - one seven hour episode
  • 1981 Bungo's Detective Notes - 3 one hour episodes
  • 1981 The Ten Battles of Shingo - 2 one hour episodes
  • 1981 My Daughter! Fly on the Wings of Love and Tears - 1 two hour episode
  • 1981 The Crescent Shaped Wilderness - 1 two hour episode
  • 1982 The Ronin's Path - 5 two hour episodes
  • 1982 The Happy Yellow Handkerchief - 1 two hour episode
  • 1983 The Brave Man Says Little - 1 eight hour episode
  • 1983 The Ronin's Path vol. 5 - 1 one hour episode
  • 1983 Ronin-Secret of the Wilderness Valley - 1 one hour episode
  • 1984 Soshi Okita, Burning Corpse of a Sword Master - 1 one hour episode
  • 1984 The Burning Mountain River - 51 episodes

Ďalšíe čítanie[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

  • Galbraith, Stuart, IV (2002). The Emperor and the Wolf: The Lives and Films of Akira Kurosawa and Toshiro Mifune. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-19982-8.

Iné projekty[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

Odkazy[upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

  • (po anglicky) http://www.toshiromifune.org/index.html
    • Toshiro Mifune - Tribute Site
    • Toshiro Mifune: Biographical details and selected filmography at the British Film Institute
    • Toshiro Mifune at the Internet Movie Database